The complement system is part of the body’s immune system. The immune system protects the body by recognizing and eliminating bacteria, viruses and other infectious agents, collectively referred to as pathogens, and abnormal cells such as cancer cells.
The complement system can be activated by three principal activation pathways: the classical pathway, the lectin pathway and the alternative pathway. As depicted in the figure below, all three activation pathways converge on C3, leading to three principal effects of complement activation: opsonization, inflammation and the membrane attack complex formation. When C3 is activated, C3 fragments, such as C3b, tag cell surfaces in a process called opsonization, which marks the cells for removal from tissues or the bloodstream. As part of the complement activation process two other fragments, C3a and C5a, are released, contributing to inflammation. Finally, as the last step in complement activation, the membrane attack complex forms on cell surfaces, piercing holes and causing cells to lyse, or rupture.
Under conditions of excessive or uncontrolled activation, the complement system plays a key role in a wide range of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In these conditions, the complement system exerts its effects directly through tissue destruction by the membrane attack complex and indirectly by signaling other elements of the immune system to attack otherwise healthy tissues.
We are developing product candidates that act against the complement system at the level of C3 to block all effects of the complement cascade, regardless of the pathway by which complement has been activated. By inhibiting C3, we believe our product candidates may effect disease control and disease modification.
In our lead programs in PNH, GA, intermediate AMD and COPD, we are developing our product candidates to control and possibly modify disease. Our lead product candidates, APL-2 and APL-1, are C3 inhibitors. APL-1 is a synthetic cyclic peptide with a short half-life, formulated for inhaled administration. APL-2 is a conjugate of APL-1 with a long half-life, formulated for subcutaneous and intravitreal administration.